Cockatiel Advice and First Aid 101

Parrot First Aid

All about emergency care for your parrot

Cockatiel

BASIC AVIAN FIRST AID KIT

A parrot specific kit can be purchased online in the UK for around £25. It should include:

Angled scissors, small scissors, long bladed scissors, tweezers, splints, syringe, Sterowash (Sterile saline), styptic powder, hydration sachets, magnifying glass, micro- pore tape, conform bandage, gauze, cotton buds, cotton balls, gloves, low adherent dressings, antibacterial wipe and Sterowipe.

The kit needs checking for out of date items annually and replenishing after use. Perhaps scheduling this at the same time as the family kit will ensure it does not get overlooked.

Purchase and include long nosed pliers (which have been thoroughly sterilised) and corn flour. Keep the avian vet and emergency avian vet numbers readily at hand with the kit. If you are unsure what to do in certain emergency situations, familiarise yourself with the correct techniques for such emergencies as: stopping bleeding; head trauma; stabilizing a damaged wing; applying splints; and blood feathers. Agree with at least 2 friends/family members what the routine will be if an emergency happens, such as their ringing the vet to say you are on your way, helping you to put the vet’s advice into practice, and transporting you and your parrot.

Preparing the kit and familiarising yourself with basic emergencies will save valuable time and could avoid fatalities. Emergency first aid is just that- FIRST aid until you can get to the vet.

BEAK INJURIES 

Description: Beak injuries can range in severity from a small crack to being ripped off entirely. Regardless of the amount of damage to their beak, this is an emergency situation. The beak has an abundant blood supply, so any injury to it is likely to cause excessive bleeding. Torn off beaks will not grow back.  However fractured beaks can often be repaired. There are bone and nerve endings connected to the beak, making any injuries in this area very painful.

How beak injuries can happen: Fighting between two birds can result in one biting the other that may lead to a beak injury. They may injure the beak on toys, and can even impale themselves on toy parts this is why it is extremely important to check the wear and tear of toys often. Supervise playtime when birds are playing with toys. Do not house or leave parrots together unattended when one species is significantly larger than the other or if they are known to not get along well together.

Immediate Care: If the beak is bleeding apply pressure to stop the bleeding. Contact an emergency clinic or your avian vet! Because beak injuries are so dangerous, it is important to seek veterinary ASAP, certainly within 24 hours. Rinse with sterile saline (preservative-free contact lens solution is perfect for situations such as this) flush the wound out for any debris and to help keep the tissue moist until your bird can be seen by your avian veterinarian. Do not be aggressive with flushing, NEVER REMOVE beak even if it is partially attached.

Long Term Care: Some beak injuries may result in permanent disfigurement requiring the bird to eat soft foods for the rest of its life. Minor injuries may heal allowing the bird to return to normal beak functioning. Your avian vet will give you instructions on how to care for your bird’s specific injury.

 

BIRD IN SHOCK SYMPTOMS

When there is any serious medical emergency or disease, this can cause shock. When shock occurs the cardiovascular system fails to supply adequate blood to the organs of the body, resulting in low blood pressure. The cells in the body then do not receive adequate amounts of nutrients or oxygen.

Shock can result from any serious injury to the body, and usually leads to death if not treated immediately!

So what are the symptoms in birds?

  • Weak appearance
  • Rapid breathing
  • Fluffed up feathers
  • Not moving
  • Closed eyes or staring while head turned backwards.

Home care treatment?

None , there is no effective home treatment for shock , the best that can be done is put the bird into a travel cage , cover it so it's dark , keep the bird very warm at (30-32 degrees C/ 86-90 degrees F) and go to your veterinary office IMMEDIATELY!

When a bird is in shock it is a true medical emergency that needs immediate medical care.  Your vet then will treat the bird first for shock by giving it rehydration fluids, oxygen and shock - specific medication. He will then he will treat the cause of the shock i.e. Burn etc.

CONCUSSION IN BIRDS

A concussion is brain trauma, there will be swelling, or bleeding inside the skull as a result of a violent blow. If you suspect that your parrot has a concussion, please seek medical care immediately!

Symptoms:

  • Staying on the bottom of the cage
  • Seeming depressed or disorientated
  • Head tilt
  • Circling
  • Weakness of a wing or leg
  • Blood in the mouth, ear or anterior or posterior chamber of the eye
  • Convulsions may occur
  • Listlessnes
  • Slight wing droop
  • Difficulty perching
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fluffed up/ shivering
  • Uncoordinated flight
  • Needing to sleep a lot (especially, straight after accident)
  • Unconscious
  • Loss of coordination
  • Eyes rolling or cannot focus

Immediate Care: Move the bird to a dark quiet area. The bird should be evaluated as soon as possible by an avian veterinarian. THIS IS A TRUE EMERGENCY, SEEK MEDICAL HELP IMMEDIATELY! Do not give any medications that have not been prescribed by your vet.

Long Term Care: This depends on the severity of the injury. The bird may make a full recovery, especially if help was given immediately. The vet will give after care advice. Placing the bird in a quiet dark area without any disturbances can aid in the recovery of head injury, and help reduce convolutions.

For serious head trauma, the avian vet will give full instructions that should be followed to the letter in order for the bird to recover.

 

DANGER OF LAYING YOUR BIRD ON ITS BACK

NEVER EVER lay a bird on its back when you are dealing with an injury, administrating medication, or treating your bird in any first aid procedure. This is a sure way to cause death, especially, if the bird is in shock. Laying a bird on its back, not only drops your bird’s blood pressure quickly, it places your already traumatised bird in an extremely un-natural and vulnerable position; this causes additional high levels of stress, and many birds have sadly died from this common mistake.

 

DIARRHOEA

It is important not to confuse diarrhoea with ‘Polyuria.’ Diarrhoea; you will notice the birds poop looks like splattered pea soup, there will be no form to the faecal matter. Diarrhoea will leave your bird’s vent dirty and mattered. Your bird maybe lethargic, fluffed up, and may have no appetite.

Polyuria is whereby the bird produces excess urine, however, the faecal matter will still have some form to it.

Diarrhoea is usually an indicator that your bird is very sick and needs to see the vet as soon as possible. If you notice that your bird has diarrhoea, quarantine your bird straight away.

Stop all fruit and vegetables for 24 hours. Feed your bird cooked white rice, whole grain toast and their usual dry diet (pellets, seeds.) Watch carefully to see if your bird is still drinking. Birds can dehydrate very quickly when they have diarrhoea. Keep your bird warm and hydrated. If there is no improvement in 24hours, then see your vet straight away. For more information on bird poop, you can read my article entitled ‘Parrot droppings’

(If you notice any other symptoms of illness, DO NOT wait the 24 hour period, see your vet ASAP.)

 

 

 

GUIDELINES ON HOW TO NURSE A SICK BIRD

HYGINE: The cage needs to be kept “meticulously clean” -- this is especially important when it houses a sick bird that cannot deal with germs as well as a healthy one might. Cage liner should be changed often, especially, when a bird is sick. An experienced owner will change paper liner twice daily or more to monitor droppings for first signs of illness. Keep the cage clean at all times. 

WARMTH: UNLESS the bird is running a fever, WARMTH IS CRITICAL! Provided your pet is NOT running a fever, its environment should be kept at around (90 degrees Fahrenheit, 32 degrees Celsius). In cases where a bird does have a fever, you should not increase the (room) temperature further as it would raise your bird’s temperature even more and could be lethal.

To tell if your bird is running a temperature:
·      A chilled bird will be fluffed up.
·      An overheated bird will raise its wings away from its body and potentially pant.
Potential heat sources that can be used for heating:
·      A heating pad underneath the cage.
·      Hot bottles wrapped in a towel.
·      Heat lamps. Of course, the heat lamps shouldn't be used at night as your bird needs to rest.

HOUSING A SICK BIRD: Place your bird in a hospital cage to keep the temperature at the level you want. A small travel cage can be used or a new fish aquarium and covered with a blanket. Ensure one side is left open for air and for the bird to see out. Monitor the temperature carefully and do not place the bird in a draft. Keep perches low to reduce injury from falling. Remove all unnecessary toys as a sick bird will not be interested in playing and toys can become contaminated. 

FEEDING: Make sure that all food and water dishes are within easy reach. Seed scattered on clean paper at the bottom of the cage too is easier to access for very sick and weak birds. Always supply both options so the bird has a choice. Water should be changed at least twice daily and changed immediately when soiled with food or droppings. Please note that very sick and weak birds can drown quickly, therefore, ensure water bowls are the appropriate size for the species of bird. Do not change a bird’s diet when it is sick, unless advised by a vet; changing diet is very stressful and can further complicate your bird’s condition. Rather, feed your bird all favourite safe foods and treats. Now is not the time to be concerned with calorie counting, your birds body needs energy to help it recover quickly, therefore, feeding it favourite foods will encourage the bird to eat.  

REDUCE STRESS: Reduce stress as much as possible. This may mean minimizing handling and removing other birds from the cage. It is vital a sick bird gets at least 12 hours of undisturbed rest per day. Avoid changing diet as explained above and keep the bird in a quiet area of the house with the least amount of noise as possible. Keep all other household pets away at this time.

DEHYDRATION: Watch out for dehydration, DEHYDRATION IS THE NUMBER ONE KILLER WHEN A BIRD IS SICK! It often kills quicker than the illness itself. If your bird is dehydrated, you can hydrate the bird using Pedialyte (UK version is known as Dioralyte, using the “natural flavour” in this brand is recommended). You can also use unflavoured, 100% pure coconut water; any brand will do, you can find this in most grocery stores. For dehydration symptoms and a home-made hydration recipe click here https://www.cockatiel-advice-101.com/parrot-health 

Here is a list of approximate amounts of electrolyte to offer a bird when dehydrated: 
·      Finches and canaries - 4-5 drops.
·      Budgies- 6-10 drops.
·      Cockatiels- ¼ teaspoon
·      Amazons - 1-3 teaspoons
·      Large parrots- Cockatoos, Macaws etc, 1 ½ to 3 teaspoons.
If you find it difficult to give the amounts in full, divide the amount and offer every 15-20 minutes. The total amount should be given several times throughout the day as needed. Always follow your vet’s advice regarding hydration.
 
MEDICATING: DO NOT add anything into the bird's water such as vitamins etc, unless you are instructed to by your vet. Birds in general will not touch water that has been flavoured; doing so will be speeding up the dehydration process as they may not drink at all. Vets will often advice you to medicate your bird orally, not in water for the reason stated above. There are exceptions of course for example if you are treating an entire aviary. Always follow the vet’s instructions. NEVER use over-the-counter medication, it can interfere with veterinarian treatment resulting in false diagnosis and testing. Antibiotics and other medications should be given roughly at the same times daily this is VERY IMPORTANT. Doing so helps the body adapt to the new medication and it ensures that the bird has an effective amount of drug in its body at all times.

KEEPING A RECORD: When a bird is sick it is imperative to weigh them daily, this will show the vet what level of recovery your bird is at. Keeping a record of medications, treatment, behaviour, weight, food intake, fluid intake, activity levels, and any other clinical signs will help the vet make an accurate diagnosis.

Disclaimer: These are first aid guidelines ONLY which may be followed until you see an avian veterinarian and receive medical treatment. These guidelines are not meant to be used in place of a qualified veterinarian’s advice and/or guidance. Always seek professional medical advice when your bird is sick or injured. Please note that a bird’s health can rapidly decline without professional medical treatment; when a bird is sick time is of the essence.
 

 

HOW TO STOP A BLEEDING NAIL

If your parrot has a bleeding toe nail , put flour in a shoe box and let the bird walk around in it , this is less stressful for the parrot than being held down to stop the bleeding , therefore will not elevate the bird’s blood pressure and cause more bleeding.

MAKING A HOSPITAL CAGE FOR A SICK BIRD

When a bird is sick or injured; take him out his cage and place him in a hospital cage. Doing this allows the bird to rest properly, without being pestered by cage mates. It also allows you to monitor him more closely. A sick bird needs to receive adequate warmth, food, water and rest.

A hospital cage can be a small travel cage or a fish tank (around 10 gallons, would be suitable, depending on the size of the bird)

Do NOT add any toys in the hospital cage. If your bird is well enough to perch, you may add a perch, however, keep it at a very low level; alternatively, roll up a small hand towel for him to perch on. Ideally, do not provide a perch for very sick birds.

Place a soft towel at the bottom of the cage or tank. Place white printing paper, or soft white kitchen paper on top of the towel. White paper allows you to read the sick birds poop more accurately.

Place food and water within easy reach. A stick of millet is often welcomed when a bird does not have much of an appetite, provide this along side usual diet. Weak birds can drown very easily, so don’t provide them with large deep bowls of water.

Hospital cages should have a heat source; so ensure you provide a heating pad, blanket, hot water bottle (covered) or an avian heat lamp. Whichever heat source you choose to use, make sure that your bird can get away from the heat when he feels too hot, or he can over-heat.

Place the hospital cage in the quietest part of your home, away from noise, other animals and drafts. Always keep hospital cages spotless.

 

 

MEDICATING A BIRD

These are guidelines on how to medicate your bird orally. Please always ask your vet to teach you exactly how to medicate your bird. If you are not confident in medicating yourself, let your vet know, or you may injure or choke the bird.

To orally medicate your bird, will take two people, at least until a time when you feel confident enough to do it alone (also depends on the size of the bird)

  • Firstly, wrap your bird in a neutral colour towel. Not placing any pressure on its chest (or the bird won’t be able to breath), and support the head and the body in a three point hold.
  • Secondly, ensure you have the bird in an upright position (never medicate a bird lying flat)
  • Thirdly, while the other person is holding the bird in an upright position, place the syringe (needle removed) in the left side of your bird’s beak (your right, if you facing the parrot), with the tip of the syringe pointed towards the right side of the throat. Then ever so slowly give the medication, allowing your bird to swallow between drops.

NOTE: The syringe should barely enter the bird’s mouth, and remember to syringe very slowly, too fast and you can choke your bird.

 

 

OIL ON FEATHERS

WHAT SHOULD I DO IF MY BIRD LANDS IN OIL?

If your bird lands in oil this is an emergency situation. A bird cannot regulate its body temperature when feathers are greasy! If the bird actually falls into oil they can suffer: breathing problems, eye problems and poisoning if any is ingested.

FIRST AID: The very first thing you do is ring your vet for an emergency appointment. While waiting for the appointment, unless the vet has given other instructions; place flour in a pillow case and place the bird in side, leaving their head outside the pillow case, then wrap the pillow case around their body being careful not to get the dust in their ears, eyes or nose, and gently dust the flour over the bird, this will soak up excess oil!

Dust off any excess powder! This will not get rid of all the oil completely, but will help to soak up excess oil from the feathers. Then take your bird immediately wrapped in a towel (to preserve heat) to the vet, who will complete the process of removing the oil and give your bird an examination.

PARROT EMERGENCIES

Below I have listed potential life threatening emergencies and urgent emergencies ,seek medical help immediately!

LIFE THREATENING EMERGENCIES:

  • Bites (especially from a cat is a true emergency)
  • Deep cuts
  • Active / uncontrolled bleeding
  • Broken blood feather
  • Bleeding toenails
  • Burns
  • Poisoning
  • Breathing difficulties
  • Collapse
  • Choking
  • Blood in droppings
  • Constipation / struggling to poop
  • Egg binding
  • Prolapse
  • Heat stroke
  • Head trauma
  • Beak injury (especially if bleeding)

URGENT EMERGENCIES:

  • Eye injury
  • Swelling
  • In-appetence/anorexia
  • Broken bones
  • Puffed up
  • Diarrhoea
  • Contact with cat or dog saliva (even if the skin is not broken)
  • Polyuria (excess urine)
  • Foreign body constriction
  • Oil on feathers

PARROT FALLING OFF PERCH

It is extremely uncommon for adult birds to fall off a perch, unless there is an underlining problem that needs to be addressed as soon as possible! Young birds may fall occasionally as they can be quite clumsy; it takes a little while for them to strengthen the muscles in their feet. With that said, if a young bird is repeatedly falling, the cause should be investigated by a vet.

A FEW POSSIBLE REASONS FOR AN ADULT BIRD TO FALL OFF A PERCH

  • Foot problems
  • Weakness
  • Lethargic
  • Illness
  • Seizures

Whatever the reason; a bird falling off a perch is NOT NORMAL, and needs to be examined by a vet as soon as possible.

HOME TREATMENT

  • Lower all perches in the cage.
  • Place a soft towel on the bottom of the cage to help prevent injury.
  • Add an energy supplement to water, you  can buy avian energy supplements from your vet or online. However, if you have don’t have one to hand , then you can add a bit of Gatorade, Karo syrup or a little sugar to the water for a quick energy boost.
  • Call your avian vet for an appointment.

POISIONING IN PARROTS

There are many household items that are toxic to parrots, just like children parrots need to be supervised at all times when they are out their cages. These birds love to explore and they do most of that exploring with their beaks.

SYMPTOMS TO WATCH OUT FOR:

  • On set regurgitation
  • Coughing
  • Diarrhoea
  • Respiratory distress
  • Blood in droppings
  • Redness / burns around mouth
  • Convulsions
  • Shock
  • Paralysis

FIRST AID TREATMENT

If the poison has come into contact with the eyes then you need to flush the eyes with lukewarm water.

If the poison has come into contact come into contact with the skin flush the area with tepid water.

If the poison has been breathe in then the room needs to be ventilated and the bird be removed from that room immediately – open all windows and put on a fan.

Call your veterinarian ASAP and take with you a sample of the poison, packaging of the poison and a sample of the birds poop. If you can’t get a dropping sample ensure you place white paper on the bottom of their travel cage, in order for the vet to examine the droppings.

 

STANDING ON YOUR PET BIRD

These birds move at lightning speed, one minute they way across the room, next they under your feet. Unfortunately, standing on a bird can happen to the best of us; therefore, how we deal with the situation can mean life or death for the bird. Standing on your bird often kills it straight away; however, some may loose tail feathers and may seem ok at the moment, unfortunately, 9 times out of 10 the bird is likely suffering from either a broken bone, head injury and /or internal injury. 

If this happens, try not to panic (I know its hard) but it keeps the bird calm. The bird will be in shock; therefore, place the bird straight away in a carrier or a box, keep it dark and warm, without a perch, and get your bird to the vet immediately. Please DO NOT handle the bird unnecessarily; shock and internal injury can be made worse or kill the bird with handling. 

Birds hide illness and injury, so, regardless of how well your bird may appear, you need to get your bird to the vet straight away. Shock and internal injury symptoms may only show several hours later. Please read, Bird in shock symptoms for how to deal with a bird in shock https://www.cockatiel-advice-101.com/parrot-first-aid

 

TONGUE INJURIES

A parrots tongue has many blood vessels. If injured, may bleed profusely. Seek a vet immediately!! Injury to the tongue is rare and usually heals quickly with the correct vet treatment!

 

 

 

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